- Character sets translate characters to numbers.
- American Standard Code for Information Interchange
- Encodes 128 characters in 7 bits.
- Encoded are numbers 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, basic punctuation symbols, control codes and space.
- ANSI standard – different "code pages" for characters 128-255 (the 1 extra bit) which differ between countries and languages.
- Character set for most of the world's writing systems.
- List of characters with unique numbers (code points).
- There are more than 120,000 characters covering 129 "scripts" (a collection of letters), there's no limit on number of letters.
- Letters map to code points.
- Every letter in every alphabet is assigned a number, for example the letter
U+0041); the number is hexadecimal.
- For example, the list of numbers represent the string "hello":
- There are more than 65,526 (2^16) chars, so not every Unicode letter can be represented by two Bytes.
- Unicode character in Java:
- An encoding is a way to translate between Strings and Bytes.
- Encoding is how these numbers are translated into binary numbers to be stored on disk or in memory (Encoding translates numbers into binary).
- It doesn't make sense to have a string without knowing what encoding it uses!
- UTF-8 is a transmission format for Unicode, i.e., encoding.
- Capable of encoding all 1,112,064 possible characters (code points) in Unicode.
- Variable-length, code points are encoded with 8-bit code units.
- Every code point from 0-127 is stored in a single Byte.
- Code points 128 and above are stored using 2, 3, or 4 Bytes.
- English text looks exactly the same in UTF-8 as it did in ASCII.
- ASCII text is valid UTF-8-encoded Unicode.
byte however has an encoding.
- To convert a string object to UTF-8, invoke the
getBytes(Charset charset) on the string with UTF-8.
- 84.6% of all Web pages use UTF-8.
String uses UTF-16 encoding internally.
- For example, UTF-8 encoding will store "hello" like this (binary):
- Capable of encoding all 1,112,064 possible characters in Unicode.
- Variable-length, code points are encoded with one or two 16-bit code units.
String class in Java uses UTF-16 encoding internally and can't be modified.
- A way to represent Unicode with the limited character subset of ASCII supported by DNS.
- For example: "bücher" => "bcher-kva"
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="UTF-8" header in the beginning of the message.
- Web page:
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> meta tag, has to be the very first thing in the
- As soon as the web browser sees this tag it's going to stop parsing the page and start over after reinterpreting the whole page using the encoding specified.
- Can also use the
Content-Type header like in email, but the
<meta> tag is preferable.