• Encapsulation – an object contains (encapsulates) both (1) data and (2) the relevant processing instructions, as we have seen. Once an object has been created, it can be reused in other programs.
  • Inheritance – once you have created an object, you can use it as the foundation for similar objects that have the same behavior and characteristics.
  • Polymorphism – generics, the presence of "many shapes." In object-oriented programming, polymorphism means that a message (generalized request) produces different results based on the object that it is sent to.

Design Patterns Examples


  • Factory
  • Builder
  • Singleton

Composition (Structural)

  • Adapter
  • Facade
  • Decorator
  • Proxy


  • Chain of responsibility
  • Command
  • Iterator
  • Visitor

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